Sunday, August 11, 2019

Basic Instincts of German Shepherd That all Breeders Need to Understand

Note: This post was published in this same blog on Feb 06, 2008. After a long 11 years I noticed that the health of this breed (both psychological and anatomical) have considerably worsen, while the health should have improved. Owing to this fact, this post has been reproduced again because this is the need of the hour.

GSD instincts as inseparable part of its behavior

German Shepherd or Alsatian Dog is one of the most Versatility canine breeds in the world - this is beyond all controversies! A well bred German Shepherd Dog is his master's truest companion, although not all shepherds are equally versatile. If bred scientifically a German Shepherd puppy will grow up with all the desirable and mandatory instincts that would make it a true type royal dog and a perfect protective companion of his owner.

While working on the development projects of make a true type working dog, Captain Max Von Stephanitz emphasized more on the working ability of the breed, rather than the look. Insofar its capability as a protective working dog is concerned it is mandatory to have the 5 basic instincts of a GSD. Here are the 5 Basic Instincts of well bred German Shepherd Dogs that are genetically inherited by a puppy from dam and sire. Idea of selective breeding comes to play its role here. Responsible breeders try to retain the basic instinct of the breed through planned and scientific breed programs. Breeding scientifically will result near-to-perfect progenitors. Remember no dog is a 100% perfect dog in this world.

The 5 Basic Instincts of a "well bred" Alsatian dog have been broadly categorized into two categories, viz. Critical / vital Instincts and General Instincts. Both these types of instincts in Alsatian or German Shepherds are of utmost importance and aspiring breeders must keeping in forefront of their mind the importance of retaining them in progenitors while breeding German Shepherd Dogs.

Critical Instincts in German Shepherd Dogs 

1. Booty Instinct OR Prey Instinct: This is one of the two Critical Instincts of a well bred Alsatian or German shepherd dog. This German Shepherd instinct triggers the dogs character trait to chase moving objects like flies, moths, butterflies, mosquitoes, etc. and seize them. This is one of the most vital GSD instincts for excellent Schutzhund protection work. The Booty or Prey Instinct plays most vital role in acting as one of the most critical motivator of striking with speed and power, which is a mandatory part of a German Shepherd Dog characteristics. This critical instinct starts to develop as the puppy reaches 6 months of age and eventually becomes prominent as it grows.

2. Fighting Drive: Another Critical instinct in a well bred German Shepherd Dog is his Fighting Drive. This GSD instinct is also referred to as "Active Aggression" or "Offensive Aggression", which is as important as the Booty Instinct, because it stimulates the dog's working ability as a protection dog. This GSD instinct helps the dog to deliver "rhythmic & explosive barks" during protection. Each of those regular deliveries of bark helps the dog to get positively stimulated, which in turn helps him to give high degree protection service. The Fighting Drive instinct of German Shepherd Dogs is highly desired for the Schutzhund protection work.

 Photo courtesy: Kraftwerk K9

3. Hunting Drive: Hunt drive or Hunting drive is another critical instict of GSD breed that helps the dog to use and combine all other drives to find a prey. More intense the hunting drive is, better the dog is for detection work. Hunt drive is important for any GSD to be a perfect patrol dog. Intense hunting drive helps the dog to effectively find the criminals.

General Instincts German Shepherd Dogs 

4. Self Preservation OR Defense Instinct: The Self Preservation of Defense Instinct is also called "Reactive Aggression". This GSD instinct should not be confused up with Prey Instinct and Fighting Drive Instinct in German Shepherds. Reactive Aggression, as a typical Alsatian dog or German Shepherd Instinct, helps the animal in developing an inherent protective trait related to territoriality. This German Shepherd instinct denotes the degree of Sharpness of its behavior as a protective dog.

This is one of the most significant part of GSD character and behavior. Reactive Aggression Instinct in GSD or Alsatian dog acts as the catalyst for the two Critical Instincts, viz. Active/offensive aggression and prey instincts, as it heavily stimulates the booty instinct and active aggression. However the Reactive Aggression Instinct of well bred German Shepherds also stimulate the Social Aggression Instinct.

5. Pack Instinct: This instinct is almost common for all pack animals including dogs, wolves, foxes, jackal etc. The Pack Instincts is not unique in German Shepherd Dog breed, but is commonly found in almost all the canine breeds in the world. In a well bred Alsatian dog the Pack Instinct is noticed quite prominently, compared many other other breeds. This is another most important German Shepherd Instinct that is highly significant for the Schutzhund trial, as it stimulates the inherent behavior of the dog to protect the pack members and act alike. Acting like all other pack members helps the dog to act in the way the handler or the owner wants him to act like. This in turn makes it easy for the owners/handlers/trainers to train the dog and teach him desired tricks. Remember... viewing from the dog's perspective, the dog considers his the owners/handlers/trainers as his pack members. Easy to train GSD (i.e the dog with desirable degree of Pack Instinct), backed by the correct blend of Territorial Instinct and Social Aggression makes the dog stay closer to his pack members. This stimulates the dog's protective behavior, which is one of the most important trait considered for Schutzhund.

6. Social Aggression: Social Aggression is another desirable German Shepherd Instinct. Like the other instincts of Alsatian Dogs Social Aggression also increases the degree of trainability -- especially for the Schutzhund protection services. Social Aggression Instinct makes the dog deliver "deep grumbling bark" towards any threatening situations, thereby proving its territoriality and dominance. This typical male German Shepherd Dog instinct can be considered as a warning signal to the threats or the strangers. Each of such barks stimulates the dog by generating power within him, which in turn helps him express himself more dominantly. This is one of the most important and desirable determinants of a guard dog character. This particular GSD instinct called "Social Aggression" is exclusively a male instinct found in most canine breeds that have been recognized guard dog breed. Found prominently in well bred male German Shepherds this instinct usually remains un-exhibited until the dog is made to face a threatening situation. Social Aggression is profoundly backed by right degree of Territorial instinct in German Shepherd Dogs and in all other dog breeds used for guarding services.

A Few More words About German Shepherd dog Instincts

It is probably due to some of these typical instincts that this majestic breed - the German Shepherd Dog has been stigmatized as one of the aggressive dog breeds. This has given a hard blow to the breed's popularity, although Alsatian Dogs is still one of the most popular dog breed in the world. It is to be kept in the forefront of the mind that these instincts are typical for the German Shepherd Dog breed and has to be genetically engineered to the heirs through proper breeding. Without the right degree of such aggression, a particular dog would be an incomplete German Shepherd. It is t be noted that German Shepherd Dog is quite friendly to the pack members including kids, but not so to the strangers, which is of utmost necessity for a perfect protection dog.


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Breeding Goal For GSD

Photo: Qvido Vepeden
Bred in: CMKU (ČeskoMoravská Kynologická Unie - (CZECH REPUBLIC)) FCI
Date of birth: 11.03.2012
Height / Weight: 65 cm / 43 kg

Dog breeding, alike breeding any other animal, is a dynamic process, and has to have a transparent, clean and meaningful goal. It is important for a breeder to stay focused on the science and art of breeding – especially when it comes to breeding working dogs like German Shepherds that was actually created to work with man and not to be kept with family as a token of status and pride. Successful breeders look back often times to check what are those things that were advised yesterday and are still important today, and what are those that should be filtered out.

With the increasing popularity of the breed – especially after the world war II, breeding GSD became a livelihood for many people around, and the practice is carried out even today. These days the people who do not even understand the breed properly are breeding these dogs to earn a living, which is a serious concern. The result is the rise in the number of backyard breeders who run after look, rather than working ability, still cannot come up with puppies with correct expression and proportion – the two major criterion for 'look'. The concept of breeding for working ability started to diminish at a faster rate; and today there are only a handful of breeders in the world who keep their focus set on the producing structure for actual working ability. DDR Line - East Germany Working GSD Has Maintained Its True Heritage. However, it's less popular.

Fact is that a few original breeders across the globe, who responsibly do it right, can't make money out of breeding German Shepherd Dogs.

Breeding for look:

Breeding for look has only started during the mid 19th century. A trend has developed to breed for look. So-called breeders tend to breed head turner GSDs with rich tan marks, big bones and huge volume. These dogs are much different from what is actually demanded for the working ability. Unlike breeders, who are inclined to produce head turner show piece specimens, the breeders of DDR and Checz lines are way more focused in producing actual German Shepherds that are more effective while working with police, military and sentry etc. and are more able to work under stressful situations, in any environment and in different terrains.

Breeding just for look unfortunately gave rise to a number of problems – especially anatomic, physiological and psychological defects, some of which have gone to such a degree that they are transmitted to progenitors genetically, having balance problems, with back issues and hind quarter issues.

Breeding for working ability: 

The idea of breeding for working ability is gradually fading out with time. Up till the first phase of 1960s German shepherd breeders did not any choice but to breed according to the what was advised – breeding for working ability. But in the fag end of 60's lots of Creative things started to be taken into consideration to produce award winning specimens, that could be further bred with a goal to produce dogs with conformation for championship – rather than for actual workmanship.

Breeding German shepherds for working ability– doesn't necessarily mean that they would have to be bred to work only as shepherds for herding sheep. The goal should to producing dogs that are physically healthy, anatomically perfect and mentally stable to work as army dogs, sentry dogs, police dogs, sniffer or drug detection dogs, and not to be forgotten, as therapy dogs, companion dogs, seeing eye dogs... which means producing specimens to fit in all faucets of work. The breeding goal for original working line is aggressive eradication of dogs with slightest indications of dysplastic hips or elbows and weak temperament. Simultaneously the goal is to breed dogs with straight toplines, large and strong head, strong and bones, perfect agility. The working dogs are bred for innate strength, athleticism and ability to work under stress and in all weather... in one word – a perfect functional dog.

A Note About DDR and Czech Lines German Shepherds 

On the contrary, the DDR Line - Deutsches Demokratische Republik Dogs (German Democratic Republic) – East Germany in English and the Czech lines - German Shepherds in the Czechoslovakian Republic have always been the finest examples of working GSDs. Both there lines used to have a single motive – breeding original working dogs for police and soldiers, and they still carry their heritage with pride.

DDR - Deutsches Demokratische Republik German Shepherds are actually bred for working as border patrol dogs, war dogs, sentry and the likes. In the past most of their training used be carried out during the night for night maneuver exercise sessions. The Diensthundefuehrer ( Dog Team Leader ) used to be responsible for the overall maintenance, care and training of the DDR border patrol dogs. On the other hand in the Czechoslovakian Republic breeding GSDs had just one single goal, and that is breeding original working and service dogs. The breeding for Czech GSDs was carried out in a single highly organized kennel that was owned and maintained by the Czechoslovakian army, with approximately 30 staffs working in the kennel per day. Czech dogs were bred to trigger the ingrained protective instincts and were trained to protect their handlers (border patrol force) when attacked by any illegal intruder. Simultaneously these dogs were also responsible for stopping these offenders while they attempted to escape.

Take away from this chapter 

The breeding goal of German Shepherd Dogs or any working breed should be producing dogs with purpose. Breeding demands immense responsibility – NOT TO EARN A LIVING OR TO WIN CHAMPIONSHIPS. Compared to the yesteryears, today's breeders have loads of scopes to use technology and methods to determine the goods and filter out the bads. Breeding German Shepherds or any other breed should have a well formulated program supported by science and NOT by emotion.
A couple of good reads here: The 5 Basic Instincts of German Shepherd Dog that the modern breeders need to restore. It's the need of the hour!

Schutzhund – The Breed Evaluation Test: Developed For German Shepherd Dogs


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Using Motivational Factors in Dog Training Techniques For Your GSD

Positive Motivation Dog Training Techniques With Corrective Measures

One of the undeniable aspects in dog training techniques is motivational dog training. Whether for your German Shepherd Dog or a Chihuahua positive motivation dog training techniques should be adopted by trainers. A handler can only be considered as a good trainer if s(he) has learned the art of using motivation in his/her dog training endeavor.

At the very beginning, it is important to let know that any reward based dog training techniques cannot be considered as positive motivation dog training, although both are considered as positive dog training methods. Many dog trainers – both freshers and experienced – are found to confuse reward based training with motivational dog training.

Reward Based Dog Training Vs Motivational Dog Training

Reward based dog training and motivational dog training are both positive dog training techniques, with very subtle conceptual distinctions - Semantic Deviation. Reward based dog training techniques are designed to positively reinforce and facilitate the development of the desirable behaviors and actions by offering them reward. Motivational dog training, on the other level, is one of the evolving positive training techniques in which your German Shepherd needs help to perform as desired, and this can be done though effective inputs of all motivational factors that stimulate the dog to learn what is taught.

Reward Based Dog Training

Reward based dog training is a positive training technique where the dog is allowed to succeed, followed by rewarding for successfully performing the desirable action –Positive Reinforcement. Reward based training method is a form of teaching, which is fundamentally called Classical Conditioning, though which connections are set to form between the event (what the trainer tries to teach while showing the reward - treat) and the subject’s reflexes (involuntary emotional responses in the dog – drooling). The reward is given when the dog does what is desired and is refused to be given when the dog doesn’t do what he is required.

Motivational Dog Training

Positive motivation dog training techniques involve creating the friendliest environment for your dog. This environmental engineering to optimize your dog’s performance level is aimed towards helping your dog to get rid of all fears and shyness and gain confidence, which help him to effectively trying to understand what his handler wants from him.

How to motivate your German Shepherd During Training?

The challenge lies in setting up the methods of motivating the dog to learn new tricks. The first step to creating the motivational environment for the dog, is helping him to:

a. Trust his trainer (building trustworthiness)
b. Get rid of fear (strengthening nerves)
c. Gain confidence in every experience related to training (diminishing shyness and gaining mental strength)
d. Choosing a place that the dog likes (a zone friendly to him)

These 4 steps are critical for effective positive motivation dog training. You absolutely cannot start off with training a dog that doesn’t trust you or that is fearful and shy or that is not confident about his safety. Once your dog is happily confident and trusts you it will become easier to build a strong relationship with him which is again essentially necessary. Remember strong trainer-dog relationship acts as one of the most potential motivating factors for the dog.

Following the above important ways to creating motivating environment for our dog, there are next set of methods that should be viewed as the connecting steps. Connected to the above factors, the other ways to motivate your GSD to learn new tricks is Positively Reinforcing Your GSD To Act Desirably By Rewarding Him, which means motivating him by giving rewards for each of his desirable actions. Here are how you can motivate him:

a. Motivating your shepherd by using food as a reward
b. Motivating your shepherd by using alluring toys as a reward
c. Motivating your shepherd by lavishly praising him as a reward
d. Applying force as corrective dog training techniques - Using force to make the dog do what he is required to do

Using Food as Reward in Positive Motivation Dog Training Technique

Using foods to get things done by dogs is one of the most traditional methods, and has been into practice probably since when man started domesticating dogs – a few thousands of years ago. This is hence quite commonly known to any dog owners, and even to those who have never stayed with a dog. What is challenging here is to master the art of presentation and timing of rewarding your dog with his favorite treat when he does what is desired. Remember, the treat is used as a reward to trigger motivation and drive to perform an action when desired. This is an art that gets mastered over time and with experience. The food based training is considered as a successful positive motivation dog training endeavor only when it motivates the dog to perform the desired action, and not just motivate the dog to participate in the training session. If the food motivates the dog just to participate the training session, then the trainer may have applied the process incorrectly, and the dog requires vigorous corrective training.

Using Alluring Toy as Reward in Positive Motivation Dog Training Technique

Not all, but a few dogs may refuse treats, and they become tough to be positively motivated by offering food. Alluring toys comes to play one of the most important roles here. But if the dog doesn’t have adequate prey drive, which is one of the basic instincts in the German Shepherd breed then even alluring toys doesn’t work good as a potential reward. Prey Instinct or Booty Drive may be genetic inherited by your GSD. This instinct stimulates the dog to chase a moving object. If this instinct is present in your dog then you can be pretty sure that your dog has ability for Schutzhund protection work. Prey drive in GSD starts becoming prominent as the puppy reaches 6 to 7 weeks of age. The trainer can enhance the instinctive quality of Prey Drive starting from the age of 8 -9 weeks. If a puppy is born with Prey Drive, it is important to strengthen it through optimal practice and drive building exercise, else the drive will be naturally diminished. Most of the dogs naturally lack in extreme Prey Drive, but many of them will have it in an adequate degree so as to put this instinct effectively to motivate it in the training as a reward.

Using Lavish Praise as Reward in Positive Motivation Dog Training Technique

When you are training your GSD for a new trick make sure you always praise lavishly for any good job done. Handler’s praise is crucial as a motivation factor in positive dog training technique. However, praise doesn’t work alone. It needs to be combined with other factors of motivation – like food and prey factors (toy). Another most significant component for “praise” to work well is a strong and positive relationship of the dog with his handler. Without a good dog-handler bonding praise will turn to be a big flop. Building relationship is a time consuming process. And building relationship that will be fruitful for “positive motivation dog training” is more challenging as it is required to be supported by trust and leadership (Alpha Membership); hence for “praise” to work really effectively as a motivational reward is not something that can happen within a fortnight. Establishing alpha leadership in the pack is an art and requires understanding of your dog's psychology.

Using Force in Positive Motivation and Corrective Dog Training Technique

‘Force’, which may sound weirdly awkward when it comes to dog training, is something that should be a part of positive dog training techniques, as long as ‘force’ doesn’t become abusive. Corrective dog training techniques requires the handler to allow the dog to do mistakes by its natural instinct, and then correcting it by firm handling.

However, applying force and being firm to a dog that is under a rigorous training session sounds easy; unfortunately it’s not. The challenge lies in understanding how much force to be applied and on what situations may be dog be forced to do what is desired. Many so-called professional dog trainers have been noticed to have applied force even to a degree that compromised the relationship. Such ‘force’ contributes to the decline in dog’s confidence and trust on the handler, accompanied with an increase in the degree of shyness, which merge together to end up with all trash, making the dog even harder to be trained.

While using any of these rewards as motivational dog training techniques do not forget to counter-conditioning the related behavioral issues. Subtle behavioral issues linked to good work done may be enhanced to bigger shape if rewards are given without conditioning the issues. Your German Shepherd may be intelligent but he doesn’t know that he is being rewarded only for the good work minus the behavioral issues.

The motivational dog training method requires the handlers to communicate with their dogs in a prominent, positive clear and compelling way. It is hence most important to establish a strong bonding between the handler and the dog. A strong positive relationship with the dog, building trustworthiness, strengthening nerves and helping the dog to gain confidence are the foundation of positive motivation dog training.


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Thursday, January 24, 2019

Does Your German Shepherd Dog Eat Grass?

Does your German Shepherd Dog eat grass?

Grass Eating Habit in German Shepherds

If your German Shepherd Dog is eating grass, he is certainly not the only dog on the Earth that exhibits such strange behavior. There are many schools of thoughts and theories as to why a German Shepherd Dog eat grass, but there’s no proven and confirmed conclusion as to why they eat grass. Dogs, irrespective of breed, gender and age eat grass at some point of time.

Veterinary researchers have been pounding on the mystery of dogs eating grass. Dr. Benjamin Hart, DVM, PhD, has studying on animal behavior for over 50 years and according to him one of the questions he is hit with most frequently from dog owners is: “Why does my dog eat grass?” Researchers have carried out study on the dogs eating grass. A number of 49 dogs were exposed to vegetation and grassland. It was observed that around 39 out of 49 dogs had consumed plants at some point of time. It noticed that the grass was preferred more than other plants by most of the dogs. Now the question is: Why Do Dogs Eat Grass?

This behavior that is characterized by knowingly eating things by a species that are not their food is called “Pica”. If your German shepherd Dog or any other dog or mongrel is eating grass, this is a kind of pica, a behavior that is not necessarily fatal or harmful, as long as you garden is free from poisonous pants along with the grass that your dog can accidentally ingest.

There are different reasons but none of them have been scientifically proven and confirmed. Some the probable reasons that many canine experts have laid down are as follows:

Settling their stomach: Those there in the veterinary profession would clearly say that your GSD eats grass because he has a natural instinct to use grass as a medicinal herb, whenever they feel irritation or ache inside their stomach. According to some people (especially those directly or indirectly related the veterinary profession) believe that dogs – irrespective of breed – eat grass and then vomit in order to settle their stomach.

Controversy: Many dogs, most of the times, do not vomit after eating grass. This goes a long way to prove that grass is not used by the dogs to vomit in order to settle their stomach. Moreover, in a survey it has been noticed that grass eating and vomit do not always go together… nor grass eating and illness are always associated. In the study of clients and veterinary students it was observed that 18% of the clients’ dogs that ate grass vomited after eating. On the other hand, 9% of the dogs owned by the veterinary-students showed some symptoms of illness before eating grass.

Nutritional deficiency: Some experts consider that dogs eat grass because of nutritional deficiency in their regular diet. Since dogs are not purely carnivorous they needs plant fibers as a part of their diet. Some dogs eat grass probably because their food doesn’t meet their requirement of veg nutrition which they try to compensate by eating grass.

Controversy: Many dogs that are fed on purely non-commercial food, without any vegetables also eat grass. Home made food usually consist of meat, eggs, fruits, veggies etc. that are quite nutritious. Many dogs that are give enough of vegetables of different types also eat grass. Moreover, if it’s a question of nutritional benefits, there wouldn’t have any reason for some dogs to vomit after eating grass.

Natural instinct: Grass eating habit of dogs is a natural instinct. Their ancestors used to eat small amount of grass and plants nutrients as a part of their natural diet indirectly by eating the intestines of herbivorous prey for instance deer, goat, sheep etc. This is considered as the instinctual craving for the roughage or minerals or fiber present in the vegetation

They love to eat grass: Some canine experts conclude that dogs love to eat grass because they like the taste. Grass and plants or weeds contains a vegetable sap that is a sometimes tastes sweet. Your German Shepherds probably like eating grass because of the taste.

We do not have any solid explanation as to why dogs eat grass. There are different school of thought and theoretical statements and believes. Researchers have been burning their midnight oil to come up to a rock solid reason for dogs’ grass eating habits. Now the question is: Is there anything to be worried about? Dog’s grass eating habit doesn’t always cause for alarm. Dogs usually do not eat grass excessively. If you notice your GSD eating grass in excessive quantity you should consult your vet instantly. Grass eating by dogs is something not to be worried about as long as your lawn is not treated with poisonous substances like fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides or any other chemical components.

Important Related Read: Herbal Cure For Dogs


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Wednesday, January 16, 2019

Panosteitis (Pano) or Long Bone Disease in German Shepherd Dog

X-Ray of the Dog's Long Bone having Panosteitis
(Fatty bone marrow inflammation)

Panosteitis (Long Bone Disease) is a growth disorder which causes great pain to young dogs but vanishes with age. Different rate of growth of the bone plates is the culprit causing the discomfort. The bone growth stops once the dog reaches maturity. Hence, in adulthood, there's no more pain experienced by large, big boned dogs, for instance German Shepherd dogs apart from Great Danes, Rottweilers, Golden Retrievers, Labrador and Dobermans. The incidence of Panosteitis is higher in males than females.

Usually when the dog is in between the age of 6 to 18 months, the growing pain affects the animal. In short, it is a juvenile disorder which automatically regresses with the onset of sexual maturity.

Signs that Says Panosteitis

The pain causes limp and more than one leg can get affected by Panosteitis (short name is Pano), which should not be considered as a disease but as a teething problem of body growth in canine breeds. The lameness is clinically described as 'shifting lameness' or 'shifting pain disease'.

Generally such dogs show signs of lethargy and appetite loss (since they remain depressed) combined with feverish body temperature or tonsillitis. Also evident is increase in the white blood cell count. There is a noticeable reluctance to walk or exercise. The clinical symptoms of Panosteitis is periodic and reflect a waxing and waning pattern. The signs last either few days or few weeks and then disappear to resurface again.

More About Panosteitis

The key characteristic of Panosteitis is fatty bone marrow inflammation – the limb bones are the targets of Panosteitis. The long bone shafts which have higher percentage of bone marrow face the brunt like ulna, radius, femur, humerus, tibia, pelvic and foot bones. The bone pain can be excruciating and might lead to lameness. The bone inflammation occurs because Pano leads to degeneration of fat cells of bone marrow and certain structural changes like osteoblasts.

The cause of Panosteitis is yet to be deciphered. Initial hypothesis point that some bacteria were responsible has been ruled out. There is a consideration that Pano is viral keeping in mind the symptoms of virus infection (fever, decreased white blood cell count, etc).

Whether or not Panosteitis is genetic, the scientists are yet to determine. A connection is made to the genetic link since certain breeds of dogs are more affected than others. But the main reason behind Pano is seen as diet that's rich in protein and fat. So, the occurrence of Pano is more dependent on nutritional aspect rather than genetic or viral aspect.

How to Diagnose Pano?

Panosteitis goes away and hence it is not a matter of utter concern; only your little pup will have to undergo a passing phase of pain. It can be diagnosed by X-Ray and only a vet, specialized in canine orthopedics, can identify the disorder from the X-Ray plate.

Vet surgeons have found out that there is an increase in bone density in Panosteitis. In the later stages the bones take on a patchy or mottled appearance, which returns to normalcy once the dog outgrows puppyhood.

Treatment of Pano

Never administer steroids to dogs afflicted with Pano. Pain killers come with side-effects like irritation in the intestines. Most important of all, is feeding an appropriate diet to such dogs is crucial because food plays a vital role in the growth and skeletal development. Natural nutrition and exercise management are ideal ways out to deal with Panosteitis.

Make a Stop to Growing Up Too Fast

Retard the process of growing up too fast – because that's the reason behind Pano. Ideally the growth rate should be slowed down in puppies affected by Panosteitis. Puppies who are not affected by any conditions should be offered good quality food with right amount of protein, vitamins, carbohydrates, fats, and minerals. Home made food with right amount and types of ingredients are great option. An all-natural diet is helpful in this regard. Even in home food, the amount of bones should be kept to minimum. Strategic feeding is highly recommended by your vet.


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Sunday, January 13, 2019

Stride Without Extremes

Please note: This article was lovingly contributed to be published on the German Shepherd blog by Linda J Shaw, MBA Author of “The Illustrated Standard for the German Shepherd Dog” on Saturday, Mar 12, 2016. This article and the image(s) remain under the copyright of Linda J Shaw and Aringsburg, and are not to be used without my written permission.

* Aringsburg and Shawlein jointly assert full copyright over the images in this post.

* "Seven photos should be self explanatory" - Linda J Shaw

The article goes here...

I am not especially enthusiastic over the increase in rear angulation that has commandeered the breed in North America over the last fifty years, and is now taking hold in Germany. The theory has always been that more acute angulation between the great levers of the hind leg; the femur, the tibia/fibula and the metatarsus; creates more drive and more powerful propulsion. I found, from my study of the gait of the wild gray wolf, that this is not the case. An increase in angulation does increase the length of the stride at the trot, but it also requires the dog to trot faster, and will tend to tax the dog’s endurance. Moderate angulation provides the best balance of speed and endurance.

Extreme angulation has also resulted in hindquarters that sag, producing an abnormally sloped topline and hocks that sickle and rotate to the midline, cow hocks, and sink to a plantigrade position. None of these problems should be rewarded in the show ring, but they are. I doubt that show judges or breeders will ever reject an increase in angulation in the rear. The side gait it produces is just too attractive.

However, it is possible to “have your cake” as it were, and produce beautiful side gait without the collapsing hindquarter and weak hocks. The dog pictured is a female from thirty years ago. In the black and white photos, she was about 18 months old (and out of coat). In the color photos, she was about 30 months. She obviously possessed the side gait so loved in the North American show ring, and appeared when posed to be as angulated and any judge would want.

Interestingly though, when set up in a normal support position, or “four square”, with the rear feet under the hip joints, or even with the rear feet set under the rear of the pelvis, she actually stands very high in the rear. Her hind legs are long, and not abnormally angulated. From the rear, her legs and hocks are straight and strong. She moved cleanly going away and was an enthusiastic jumper and fast at the gallop. At the trot, her back remained level and strong, not sloping, and she did not stand or run with her hocks on the ground.

No doubt few show people would want to see a dog standing with its croup higher than its withers. In actuality, she normally stood with her hind legs more or less in a show pose, and with a level back. She never sagged into a crouch or sit. I know because I owned her. She finished with three five point majors at specialty shows, including under Sam Lawrence, and in the working group defeated Canada’s top winning dog, all breeds. She had issues, but strength in the rear wasn’t one of them.
So if show dogs are your thing, there is no excuse for weak, sagging rears and soft, sickle hocks. They don’t have to be the price for the extended side gait required to win in the show ring.

Please Note: Copyright: These pictures are copyright protected by Aringsburg and Shawlein.


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Friday, September 7, 2018

HD Manipulation by Feetback Kennel Has Stirred up a Storm

Lampio di Serbio Feetback

Inheritance of Canine Hip Dysplasia in GSD

A recent news about HD manipulation by Feetback Kennel has stirred up a storm on the Internet. The news reported by GSD World News stated, “Due to several inquiries, news and some comments, a little explanation on the subject of such claims against the Kennel Feetback. The owner of said specimen, said in response of the dog Lampio di Serbio Feetback claiming that it has fallen victim to the fraudulent tactic of HD manipulation.” He further went on to explain that he bought the dog at the age of 12 months. At the time, HD / ED and DNA (in Germany) were already registered with the SV and elbows were rated as "normal" and the hips as "almost normal". There followed a lot of work and success, because in the end he completed the prestigious IPO 3 licensing on lifetime. But after receiving the letter from the SV, he submitted the x-ray to the centre to satiate their assumption that the dog may be a victim of HD manipulation.”

The owner claimed, that the health of his dog is personally (even if not in the interests of the blamed breeder) very important for him. The news that arrived a few weeks later, clearly stating – HD Manipulation, shocked him. The disappointed owner wrote on GSD World News’ social media page as – "Sg 2" Onar Feetback has been manipulated”. He highlights this as a socio-economic problem that “is gear and fabric in the Serbian breeding of Dejan Simovic, Goran Pesic and Miodrag Stojancevic!”

Unscrupulous activities like this is a serious threat to the breed!

Understanding the inheritance rate of CHD:

Dysplasia is a complex polygenic disorder that is not congenital in nature. The phenotypic expression of CHD is also linked with environmental factors. Even dogs with normal phenotypes maybe carriers as it is a complex polygenic disorder and control of passing on of said genes would increase the selection pressure on the breeders. It is sad to note, that due to unethical practices when considering breeding partners (where genomic breeding values should be prioritized). This is the only control system to take this trait off the breeding line has often been ignored or manipulated as the case reported above. Selection pressure on the breeders may be burdensome but is for the good of the species when they consider genomic breeding values over aesthetic counterparts.

The best possible solution of controlling the inheritance of this potentially debilitating condition is through selection of dogs with better individual phenotypes when breeding. In a polygenic disease, different genes contribute small yet substantial additive effects that manifests into the disease. But in case of CHD, environmental as well as other factors such as age, sex, body weight of specimen and the conditioning during the first 60 days of a pup’s life is said to influence the hip joint formation and expression of the disease. Molecular studies to understand the manifestation and genetic basis of CHD has been going on for several years now. But hasn’t returned any substantial progress due to low interest from concerned communities.

However, the published inheritance rate of CHD traits is variable and reportedly range between 0.1 to 0.60. The differences of inheritance rate estimations depend on the trait considered, calculation methods used, selection, and the population and sample used for estimation. For example, the heritability is seen to be as high as 0.83 in case of passive hip laxity in the Estrela Mountain breed of dogs from Portugal. Thus, it safe to conclude that the genetic improvements after stringent selection of traits of those with higher inheritance rates, will accumulate over time. And if such malpractices are continued for personal gains of breeders, then the selection pressures for breeders will be bigger per generation and be corrosive to the health and welfare of the species we love.

As lovers of dogs we must promote the idea of selection and breeding of specimens with low hip scores to control and reduce the incidence of hip dysplasia.

Author bio:

Pritha Biswas is an independent researcher and published science and research non-fiction writer and editor, with a background in Zoological sciences presently working on understanding the behavior and breeding nuances of German Shepherd dogs with an outsider outlook. Copying and re-publishing this article is subject to a written permission sought from Pritha Biswas and Aringsburg via email aringsburg(at)


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Sunday, August 6, 2017

Breeding GSD - SV Rules For The Breeders

SV Rules For The Breeders - Article Reproduced from SV

Owing to the massive popularity of the GSD breed, many people across the globe have made it a mode of earning to breed GSD and sale puppies. The lack of breeding knowledge is the reason for this beautiful breed to gradually loosing its rich working heritage and innate power. The breeders are requested to educate themselves and follow FCI, and SV breeding standards. These esteemed organizations should only give breeding rights to those who meets these all requirements, as laid down under breeding rules.

Here is the copy of SV and FCI standards for breeding German Shepherd Dogs...

1. General

The club for German Shepherd Dogs (SV) is the parent club of the breed, recognized by the VDH and the FCI. The breeding rules of the SV serves the advancement of breeding the German Shepherd Dog, and regulates the entire area of the breeding activity. They are part of the club rules and obligatory for all members of the club.

2. The Breeder

2.1 Breeding Privileges

For owners and holders of German Shepherd Dogs who want the privileges of the studbook of the SV, (dogs, bitches, ownership, and/or handling), membership in the SV is required. The breeder of a litter is the person who owns or leases the dam at the time of mating. A transfer of the breeder’s rights is also possible at the sale of a covered (bred) bitch. In this case the Studbook office is to be presented with:

1. Proof of ownership transfer through submission of the Ahnentafel (pedigree/registration),

2. Certificate of mating.

These documents must be submitted to the Zuchtbuchamt (Studbook/breed-book office) at the latest on the 49th day after the mating. Permissions for exceptions cannot be given. A breeder can breed a maximum of 10 litters per calendar year under his kennel name. This calculation is based on the whelping date.

2.2 Leasing a Bitch

The lease of a bitch to breed (for a fee) is possible, but must be approved by the SV. The lessee is considered the breeder of the litter when the following requirements are fulfilled. The Studbook office is to be presented with:

1. Lease (Sample contract/form)

2. Proposition for transfer of the breeders’ rights (form).

These documents must be submitted to the Zuchtbuchamt (Studbook/breed-book office) at the latest on the 49th day after the mating. Permissions for exceptions cannot be given.

2.2.1 Obligations

The fulfillment of the obligations emerging from the lease is incumbent on the lessee.

2.2.2 Frequency of Leased Breeding

A breeder can transact a maximum of five leased breeding per calendar year. This calculation is based on the whelping date. If the leased breeding are successful, this will lead to entry in the studbook. Additional authorizations are not permitted.

2.2.3 Leased Breeding with Foreign Countries

Leased breeding outside of German boundaries are not allowed. Exception can be given for prior arrangements, which must be confirmed by the responsible Landesgruppen and Ortsgruppen breed wardens, through the Studbook office. The authorization of the breed book office must be given before the day of mating. The authorization is only a possibility, and the bitches must meet the breeding requirements according to the German rules.

2.2.4 Leased Breeding and Studbook Ban

A person prohibited by a Studbook ban is forbidden to assign breeders’ rights for a bred bitch to another person. With the imposition of a Studbook ban, the embargo of a co-owned dog or bitch in the property of such a person becomes automatic.

Stud notices for dogs that reside in the property of a person for whom the studbook is blocked by the SV, may not be published in the SV Zeitung. Stud dogs may not be offered for matings away from home and/or brought in for matings on the property of a person covered by a Studbook ban.

2.3 Kennel Names and Kennel Name Protection (Registration)

Protection of an appropriate kennel name is to be applied for at the SV breed book office before beginning of the breeders' activity. This proposal is put in time, that the protection of the kennel name can be published before the accomplishment of the bitch’s mating. A kennel name can be registered and protected only for adult persons. The kennel name must be applied for at the SV headquarters and be registered by them. It expires at the death of the breeder, insofar as an heir does not apply for the continuation of the name for himself, and/or 30 years after the last registration.

Existing kennel names will not be awarded up to 30 years after the death of the breeder to another breeder. Puppies resulting from leased bitches become entered under the kennel name of the tenant who has them at time of tattooing (See 3.2.2.)

If several persons have ownership of a bitch, we count as the breeder the one who the Studbook office has on record as being authorized to sign the official papers. If the co-owner who is not authorized to sign should want to breed the bitch, he is required to supply a written agreement from the one authorized to sign.

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3. Breeding Advice and Breeding Supervision: the Breed Wardens

3.1 Local clubs’ Breed Wardens (Ortsgruppen-Zuchtwarte)

There are Breed Wardens in the local clubs who are responsible for the control and supervision of breeding activity at the local (subordinate organization) level.

3.1.1 Responsibility of the Local Breed Wardens

The jurisdiction over breeders is determined by the respective

Landesgruppe (major geographical region) that they are in. The principal Landesgruppe jurisdiction can hereby be determined by either of these two:

1. Jurisdiction based on the breeder’s place of residence;
2. Jurisdiction based on the breeder’s local club membership.

In case of a member belonging to several Ortsgruppen (“OG”, or local clubs) in the same Landesgruppe, the local-chapter breed warden responsible is the one who is nearest to the residence of the breeder.

If memberships are held in several Ortsgruppen in different regional groups, the responsible breed warden in the Landesgruppe in which the breeder has his residence is the one to be recruited. If it is not possible for the designated breed warden to make the first inspection within 3 days, the breeder can consult his proxy or representative in the local club, or else the breed warden of an adjacent jurisdiction. In such cases the litter registration document is to be signed by both breed wardens.

3.1.2 Duties of the Local-club Breed Wardens

The local breed warden is obliged to clear up any breeding questions the members within his local chapter have, and to consult on the breeding activity and the breed organization. Arising out of this is the obligation for the breed warden to constantly update his knowledge by participating in the “breed warden courses” which are regularly given by the Landesgruppe. The breed warden is particularly responsible for the care and record-keeping of litters in his region. The breed warden has to be first notified of a litter or pup in his jurisdiction no later than the 3rd day after the whelping, and must view the bitch from then on regularly, at least three times, to observe and take note of their appearance. The tattoo number of the dam is to be verified at this time.

The suitably care of the dam and pups is to be particularly considered during these visits and in the report.

These breed warden’s examinations are to be accommodated by the breeder; they also have to include suitably polite behavior.

The breed wardens have to supervise the breeding of German Shepherd Dogs within the sense and spirit of the breeding rules. They have to report violations against the breeding rules, as well as “wild” (unplanned) breeding, to the responsible Regional (Landesgruppe) breed warden.

3.2 Tattooers

For the purpose of identification, the puppies are tattooed in the club’s district. Tattooing them is a requirement for registration in the “studbook” (official SV records of GSDs, also known as “breed book”). For tattooing the litters (each puppy), the SV has arranged for and regulates tattooers in the respective regional groups.

3.2.1 Responsibilities of the Tattooers

The tattooer or his proxy who has jurisdiction and is responsible for the breeder (or the Aufzuchter, the person rearing the litter) is the one who resides in the region of the breeder (or those rearing the pups, in the case of pups nursed by a foster mother).

3.2.2 The Tattooers’ Field of Activity

The tattooer has the task to scrutinize and verify the responsibilities of the local breed warden and to jointly target dates with him and the breeder to tattoo the puppies starting with (at the earliest) the 50th day of life. The tattoo can be accomplished only at the breeder’s (or Aufzuchter’s) location and has to involve the entire litter (those pups being cared for by foster mothers included). Tattooing after the 12th week of life may be accomplished only under anesthesia.

The tattooer furthermore has the task to check the litter registration document (copy supplied by the responsible local breed warden) for completeness and formal evidence of accuracy. If the tattoo number is later illegible, this is to be reported to the SV studbook (registration records) office. The costs of any re-tattooing has to be borne by the owner of the individual dog. Claims for damages from tattoo administration are not permitted.

3.3. Identification and Guarantee of Pedigree

3.3.1 Genotype Database (DNA)

The Club (SV) has ordered a DNA genotype database for the sure identity and verification of the lineage of dogs, on the basis of a molecular-genetic ancestry investigation. This has been used worldwide since 1996. The Process with a Blood Sample

The procedure is as follows:

1. The specified vet takes a blood test.

2. The contracted veterinarian guarantees to the SV the identity of the dog to be examined through personal examination of the tattoo number and his comparison with the number in the original Ahnentafel.

3. The name, the studbook number, and the tattoo number of each dog are put on the furnished medical report, and with the blood sample these are sent by the specified vet to the designated institution.

4. The evaluation and establishing of the DNA formula and the ancestry investigation are to be accomplished centrally at the designated, contracted institution.

5. The SV headquarters office requires the Ahnentafeln from the owners.

6. Upon receipt of the finding, a stamp is placed on the Ahnentafel.

7. If the DNA data exist for father and/or mother, the ancestry can be verified. In these cases one and/or two additional stamps can be affixed. By this means, the correct descent is determined when one or two parents’ identity is proven.

8. An exception or objection to one or both parents can be recorded at the breed book office within a time limit of 4 weeks after delivery of the decision to the applicant. Through the headquarters an expert authority can be demanded.

This expert authority acts as a final arbitrator in regard to the decision/information. Objections to his decision are impossible. The costs are at the expense of the applicant (effective 1 Aug. 2001). The Process with a Saliva Sample

The club has arranged for the security of identity and for the examination of the inheritance of the dogs’ genotype -database on the basis of a molecular-genetics inheritance investigation. The procedure includes the following items.

1. The tattooer takes saliva samples for the anticipated testing.

2. The tattooer guarantees to the SV the identity of the respective dog, through personal control of the tattoo number.

3. On the front of the litter registration document, the tattooer will note the procedure of taking the saliva sample.

4. The medical reports including the complete names and tattoo numbers of the dogs, as well as the completely labeled and identified samples, are provided and sent by the tattooer to the contracted institution. The (carbon) copies of the medical reports are submitted with the birth documents of the breeder to the studbook office.

5. The DNA sample is sent to the designated institute for the establishment of a Profile that shows the parentage investigation on father and mother.

6. On receipt of the result, a stamp addition is placed on the Ahnentafel. With this, the correct ancestry (in reference to the parents) is considered proven.

7. The tattooer is likewise to be used for acquisition of the saliva samples from mature dogs, too.

3.3.2. Proof of Identity on Radiographs

Before completing the 31st use at stud, each dog is re-examined with regard to the previous HD investigation. A second radiographic evaluation is to be made by a veterinary university hospital. If the first radiograph has been taken at a university hospital, another university hospital is to be chosen for the second radiograph session. The developed film is examined by the HD expert assigned by the SV without benefit of the initial radiograph. Sedation of the dog at the second radiography is not imperative. The expert decides on the usefulness or fitness of the second radiograph with regard to the required verification [of suitability for breeding].

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That Breeders Should Understand

4. Breed Value and Breeding Requirements

4.1 Breed Value

4.1.1 Dogs Admitted to the Gene Pool

To be allowed breeding rights in the SV system, all dogs must be entered in the studbook, and possess on the date of mating a training degree such as SchH 1-3, IP 1-3, HGH, or an equivalent acknowledged training degree, obtained under an SV judge (applies to German-resident dogs). The SchH or IP title must include a score of at least 80 points in phase C (protection). In addition, at an SV conformation show or breed survey they must have the breed evaluation of at least “Good”, and have both the “a” stamp for hips and a DNA archives number marked in the Ahnentafel. The NA record is essential for dogs born after July 1, 1999. For dogs bred in foreign countries, which are to be bred in Germany, the DNA information is required regardless of their whelping dates. Two classes of breeding animals are hereby distinguished.

4.1.2 Dogs “Suitable” (Allowed) for Breeding

Dogs suitable for breeding are those that get classification 2 (Körklasse-2) at an SV breed survey. 4.1.3 Dogs “Recommended” for Breeding

Dogs recommended for breeding are those that get classification 1 (Kkl-1) at an SV breed survey.

1. 4.1.4 Dogs Not Qualified or Suitable for Breeding (not allowed to breed (have registrable offspring) not meeting the requirements under 4.1.1 to 4.1.3

2. dogs from the working dog records of the SV (a classification of working dogs not necessarily purebred or breed-worthy but that are actively in service)

3. dogs with the following defects:
- poor/weak in character, biting and nervous dogs
- known “severe HD”
- unilateral and bilateral cryptorchids
- incorrect ear and/or tail faults
- any deformities
- tooth faults as follows:
- are missing:
1 premolar-3 and 1 further tooth
or 1 fang
or 1 premolar-4
or 1 molar-1
or 1 molar-2
or any 3 or more teeth.

(The absence of the molar-3 is of no consequence if such dogs have the original presence of the tooth proven and confirmed on the Ahnentafel.)

- considerable pigment faults, also blues
- long-coats, with or without noticeable undercoat
- tooth (bite) faults:
more than 2 mm overshot*
- over- and/or undersize by more than 1 cm:
Males 66 cm / bitches 61 cm max. (Kkl-2 possible if over 65/60 cm but not over the max.)
- bitches that have given birth three times with Caesarean (C-section)
- the pectineus muscle having been cut

4. Surgical operations on a dog for the purpose of correction or for acquisition and/or improvement of a breed survey (examples: ears, tail, teeth, testicles) will result in a breeding prohibition and legal proceedings against the owners.

5. The breeding value of dogs described under 4.1.4 listed dog is considerably limited. They are not to be used, therefore, for breeding. Should there be any progeny from these dogs, they are ineligible for entry in the studbook of the SV. The owners of these dogs are informed by registered letter about the decision, regarding the uselessness to the breed, immediately upon being known to the breed book office. Objection to the decision is possible 14 days after delivery, at the latest. If there is an objection, the studbook manager decides in the first instance, and in case of further objection, the SV president or the Chief Breed Warden makes the definite, final decision.

4.1.5 Breeding procedure

For breeding, the following are required:

* Purebreds = pairing of animals of same breed. This leads automatically to the exploitation of genetic value through family relationships or linebreeding.

* Inbreeding = breeding based on relatively close kinship, in which an ancestor is represented at least once on both father’s and mother’s side. Inbreeding (most Americans call this linebreeding) also includes siblings’ relationships. By definition, this relationship is considered as limited to the first five generations of ancestors. One further distinguishes:

* Most narrow inbreeding (incest breeding) is pairing between parents and children, grandparents and grandsons or between siblings (therefore between relatives of the 1st and 2nd degree) in a straight or side line. Inbreeding closer than 2-3 or 3-2 (including with siblings of those dogs) is not allowed. (Linebred 2-3 is the maximum.)

* Narrow inbreeding is pairing between relatives of the 3rd and 4th degree (dogs found in the 3rd or 4th generation —Linebreeding such as 3-4)

* Wider inbreeding is pairing with relatives in the 4th and 5th degree. (4-5 breeding)

* Outcross breeding is by a single introduction of “foreign blood” (dog without common ancestors in the first 5 generations).

* Outcross breeding is pairing of animals of the same breed, but which are not related.

Since almost all purebred dogs have emerged from narrow gene pool, it suffices to say we should pursue the wider linebreedings. In this, a genetic connection between ancestors is looked for, to determine the good genetic producers. Animals should not be doubled up again and again through closely related “blood” through narrow linebreeding; to avoid unpleasant phenomena the hereditary factors should be set as wide or open as feasible.

4.2 Breeding Requirements

In addition to the determinations under 4.1, the following are important:

4.2.1 Minimum Age of the Breeding Animal:

The male must have had his 2nd birthday by the time of the breeding. Bitches must be at least 20 months old by the first breeding use (date of mating). Unintentional matings before the respective minimum age are to be reported immediately to the responsible local breed warden, who will inform the regional breed warden and the Studbook office. Regarding any litter registration from such combinations, the studbook manager decides, together with the SV chief breed warden and/or the president.

4.2.2 Frequency of the Breeding Use

For dogs and bitches co-owned by two or more persons, they must inform the breed-book office as to which one person is authorized to sign as agent or representative of the partnership. This information as to representation and authorization to sign must be signed by all co-owners and presented to the breed book office within 30 days after ownership transfer. Rüden (Stud Dogs)

Males that meet the requirements of the breeding rules are allowed up to a maximum of 90 matings per calendar year, consisting of 60 matings for domestic (German resident) bitches and up to 30 for foreign bitches. The matings are to be proportioned or divided so that approximately 50% are in each half of the year as uniformly and evenly distributed throughout the year as possible by months. The distribution of the matings to “in-land” vs. foreign countries is at the option of the owners of stud dogs. If a dog first becomes 2 years old during the calendar year, only a pro-rated number of matings are allowed, calculated from the time of becoming 2 years old. This includes matings with domestic as well as with foreign bitches. A transfer of domestic bitches to foreign status and reverse is not permissible. Frequent matings shortly one after another are to be avoided because of the constitution and for a sure fertilization. Matings by a dog with the same bitch within 28 days are counted as one mating.

If the owner (or the agent/representative who is authorized to sign) breaks the rules (see 4.2.1), in reference to a dog, he is to be punished according to such determinations (see also 4.2.2.) as follow:

1. At the first proven violation for too many matings, the violator gets a fine in the amount of 515 Euro, along with the warning of an imposition of a three-month embargo of the dog (prohibition of breeding rights) in the case of repeated violations.

2. At a second proven violation for too many matings, the violator gets a fine in the amount of 515 Euro, a three-month embargo of the dog, and an introduction of legal proceedings by the SV disciplinary committee (“court”). Bitches:

Healthy bitches can be used twice annually for breeding (in so far as the regulations under 4.2.4. not are affected). The bitch’s owner has to inform the responsible breed warden about the mating and the litter.

4.2.3 Matings

The free choice [yes or no] of the stud dog is the right of the breeder; likewise the stud dog handler or manager has the right of selection of the bitches to be admitted.

When the stud dog has executed the copulation, the breeding is considered as accomplished, and with it is fulfilled the requirement to give the arranged fee for stud service. If the bitch does not become pregnant, a second free mating is to be granted. Abortion and/or the bitch staying non-pregnant is to be indicated to the owner of the stud dog immediately.

The completed mating is to be confirmed by the owner of stud dog (and/or the agent, or person authorized to sign — see 4.2.2.) with a certificate of mating to be supplied by the studbook office with marked prices beside the statements contained in the form. This will include information about the breeding partners, signatures, a statement of the place of issue, and the dates of matings. It is forbidden to give out blank (not filled-in), signed breeding certificates.

The breed book office is to be informed within 10 days after the day of mating in writing about the completed mating. The time limit applies if the studbook office in this time can record the receipt of the notification.

If the owner (or the agent/representative who is authorized to sign) breaks the rules (see 4.2.2), in reference to a dog, he is to be punished according to these determinations as follows:

1. At the first proven violation for lateness and/or omitted entry of five matings in the calendar year, the studbook office imposes a fine in the amount of 515 Euro.

2. At the second proven violation for tardiness and/or omitted reporting of six to ten matings in the calendar year, the studbook office imposes a fine in the amount of 1030 Euro, joined with a warning that in the case of recurrence, a three-month embargo of the dog (prohibited from breeding) can be imposed.

3. At the third proven violation for tardy and/or omitted reports of more than ten matings in the calendar year, the studbook office imposes a fine in the amount of 1545 Euro, as well as a three-month embargo of the dog, and begins the SV court's legal proceedings.

Under the rules regarding section and 4.2.3., there will be published the particular fine and/or a notice in the SV Zeitung under "Unnamed penalty" with the distribution 2/3 German Sieger Show and 1/3 Bundessiegerprüfung. The breed book office is responsible for the supervision and punishment under the rules in sections and 4.2.3. After accomplishing a hearing of the owner and/or agent of the stud dog, (see 4.2.2.) the decision is delivered per registered letter. The person affected can appeal the decision at the breed book office within 14 days after delivery of the decision. The SV Board decides re the appeal.

If there is a suspicion of a pathological fertility disorder in a stud dog, the owner and/or agent (see 4.2.2.) at his cost, is required by the studbook office to allow a university veterinary clinic to examine the dog within four weeks. If it is ascertained that a dog that is not procreative or only partially so, he can removed from Körung and blocked from the breeding registry. If bitches are “empty” and it is shown that the dog is lacking fertility, the owners/lessees of bitches can demand return of the full stud fee.

After a completed mating, requirement for the payment of the arranged fee for stud service applies. The performance of the stud dog is fulfilled. If the dog does not stand at stud any more (for example, sale or death), half the stud money is to be paid to the bitch’s owner. Stud dog owners are obligated to refund the full stud fee for non-pregnant bitches, if through their fault the dog should be completely or occasionally unavailable or prevented for the breeding.

If the bitch does not become pregnant, a free mating is to be granted. The lack of a pregnancy is to be indicated by the owner or the agent of the dog immediately.

A litter with two different sires shall not be entered in the studbook of the SV. In such cases the studbook office undertakes confirmation of inheritance regarding entries in the pedigree register.

Sperm collection for artificial insemination is forbidden. Puppies produced by A.I., as well as cloning, are not recorded in the studbook of the SV.

4.2.4 Litter Size

A bitch may rear not more than eight puppies from her own litter. Additional puppies are to be raised by means of a nurse (foster mother). The club maintains nurses for this arrangement in each Landesgruppe. If the bitch has more than 8 puppies, she may be bred again no earlier than 6 months after the whelping date.

4.2.5 Foster Mother

The nurse to be used must have a withers height of at least 50 cm, be robust and healthy, and have a good nature. A nurse may be been allowed to raise puppies of only one other bitch, and of course at most six, including the puppies whelped by the nurse.

If a nurse raises no litter of her own, she can be been given puppies from two different litters, if the puppies are marked so that a mistake is not possible. The breed warden has to supervise the foster mother and to confirm the labeling is certain. The puppies are to be farmed out at the latest on the 10th day of life. The foster mother must be confirmed by the responsible breed warden in the litter registration document and/or the foster dam’s certificate. The puppies raised with a nurse are to be marked in the tattoo certificate with “A”.

To breed a bitch exclusively to provide a foster mother (nurse) is not permitted. The use of false-pregnancy bitches is not permitted.

If a bitch has entered the picture after the whelping, the foster mother can take over some of the puppies after the 10th day of life, if the Landesgruppe (National Committee) breed warden or the studbook office gives the authorization.

The choice of which pups to submit to the nurse for raising, must be done at the latest by the 10th day if not more than eight puppies of the litter are retained by the mother. Puppies with any deformities, and such that have not appeared on further view to be viable or keep up with the litter mates, are to be killed at the latest on the 11th day painlessly (and only by a doctor or a competent person) and only under anesthesia. In special cases the headquarters is to be tuned in or consulted.

Raising pups by a different species is not permitted.

It is appropriate to remove dewclaws (wolf-claws on the hind legs) in the puppies’ first week of life. (Translator’s note: the dewclaws are no longer forbidden as of 2002.)

The puppies are not placed (moved, given away, or sold) before their tattooing. This moving also is allowed only so far as they are healthy, and no contagious diseases rule in the kennel. Puppies may be tattooed only at the breeder. If puppies have been given away in foster mother, these must be fetched back to the litter for tattooing.

The repatriation of those pups that were in the foster mother’s care to the dam may earliest be accomplished after the sixth week of life. If the puppies are not tattooed directly after the repatriation, the breeder has to confirm the identity of the mother and foster mother.

4.2.6 Litter’s Birth Announcement

The breeder informs the breed warden directly after the whelping.

Before the tattooing, the litter certificates are to be filled out (plus a copy each for the breed warden, tattooer and breeder). The information with the necessary documents is to be submitted by the breeder completely to the SV headquarters within 6 months.

The following information for pedigrees is to be enclosed:

* Pedigree of the bitch (if a change in ownership has occurred)
* Certificate of mating
* Litter registration document
* Tattoo certificate (original)
* Tattoo control document
* if necessary, a foster dam certification

4.2.7 Pedigrees

Pedigrees are proof of ancestry. The SV Studbook office confirms the identity with the studbook entry.

SV Pedigrees (Ahnentafeln) are acknowledged by the VDH and the FCI as certificates of authenticity. Pedigrees remain the property of the SV. Possession of the Ahnentafel is by the owner of the dog. The pedigree can also be in the possession of the lessee of the bitch during the duration of the lease. This includes also “holders” (managers, agents) of stud dogs at breeding stations.

The breeder is obligated to examine the pedigrees for their accuracy and to confirm this with a signature on side 1. The delivery of the pedigrees of a litter can be accomplished only by the breeder personally. Changes in ownerships are to be confirmed on the back page of the pedigree with names and address of the buyer, date, and signature of the clerk; the SV office is to be informed immediately. It is forbidden for the owner, to sign pedigrees without entering the change in ownership.

5. Hip Dysplasia (HD) Procedures

5.1 General

Hip dysplasia is a pathological change of the hip joints in the area of the sockets and femoral heads. The form of the disease is on a continuous “spectrum” from slight to the severe form.

The club has applied a process for the breeders’ fight against HD, arranged since 1966, and has until today shown outstanding results for breeders’ selection. That is, the club has set up in addition an obligatory breeding program for the fight against hip dysplasia with the method of the “Breed Value Assessment”, known as “Zuchtwert”.

5.2 SV Preventive Measures

5.2.1 Investigative Procedure

The status of the hip joints is ascertained through radiography.

The process has following conditions:

1. Basically, radiography can be accomplished only once.

2. The minimum age of the dogs for the investigation is 12 months.

3. The approved/contracted veterinarian guarantees to the SV the identity of the dog to be examined through personal control of the tattoo number, comparing this number to that in the original pedigree.

4. The examining veterinarian sends the film and his judgment, with the name of the dog and the tattoo number on the radiograph, to the SV headquarters.

5. The evaluation and final examination is done at the central place of interpretation, which is the veterinary university in Hannover (clinic for small pets). Beside this interpretation center, there are additional veterinary universities and universities with HD specialists.

6. If the finding is Normal, Almost (fast-) Normal, or Still Permissible (noch zugelassen) the “a”-stamp is placed on the pedigree by the SV. Owners of dogs identified with Medium (Moderate) HD are notified by the SV with a postcard. Dogs shown to have a severe form of HD are announced as having a ban on progeny registration.

7. In case of a dog owner’s disagreement with the first finding of the “a”-stamp value, he has the possibility of a second examination. This is to be requested to the studbook (Zuchtbuch) office of the SV within 6 months after delivery of the information and can be accomplished only at the SV’s central HD interpretation location (Hannover). In such a case, the main office will require the services of an expert authority. For the expert authority’s use, two new radiographs of the hip joints, with both extended and flexed upper thighs, are necessary. These films may be prepared only by a university veterinary hospital. The expert’s finding is conclusive, definite, and final. Objections are not allowed. The costs are borne by the applicant.

5.2.2 Other Instructions and Information for Breeders

1. for the breed evaluations of “VA” and “V”, the “a”-stamp acknowledgement is required;

2. for the breed survey, the “a”-stamp is also required;

3. illegal operations or activities with a dog, with the goal of achieving ability to breed, are forbidden and result in the introduction of internal SV criminal proceedings.

6. Elbow dysplasia (ED) - procedures/process

6.1 General

A pathological degenerative change in the elbow is called elbow dysplasia, which disease shows different forms or manifestations of arthroses in these joints.

The form of the disease varies in a smooth spectrum from slight to severe.

Beginning January 1, 2002, The club has arranged, on a voluntary basis, a procedure for the fight against elbow dysplasia.

6.2 Investigative Procedures

The inquiry of the status of the elbow joints is ascertained through radiography. That procedure has the following features:

1. The radiography can be accomplished basically only once. The minimum age of the dogs is 12 months.

2. The SV-approved veterinarian assures the SV of the identity of the dog being examined through personal observation of the tattoo number and comparison of that number with the one in the original pedigree.

3. The name of the dog and the tattoo number will be forwarded from the examining veterinarian with the radiographs of both elbows, and the diagnostic reports, to the studbook office.

4. The study and definite, final evaluation is done by the central place of interpretation (a designated university clinic).

5. Findings of "Normal (no evidence of ED)", "Borderline case", and “Slight ED (‘ED-1’)” can have a stamp placed on the pedigree by the SV. Owners of dogs with ED degrees 2 and/or 3 are notified through the breed book office in writing.

7. Arrangements for the Conservation and Advancement of Breeding

Performance tests, shows, and the breed survey are for this purpose. Details are determined in the survey rules, show rules, and working trial rules.

7.1 Studbook

The entire GSD breed (qualified dogs) is contained in the registry. Applications can be taken only from persons who are over 18 years old. For youths under 18 years, the written agreement of the parent or legal guardian is necessary. The studbook (SZ registry) was developed for the breeding of the GSD and forms a record of progeny of the animals used in creating the breed base. To attain a most inclusive possible knowledge about the ancestry and descent within the breed, the studbook must include a record of the entire breed, within the meaning of the breeding rules, listing qualified animals in the registry, even when it should turn out later that they are not suitable for breeding for any reason. Also it is necessary to record these dogs, because thereby the necessity and ability are created, to be able to determine the transmission of good and bad traits within the breed.

The pedigree of a dog is derived from the studbook, which gives not only useful information about the names and descent of the individual ancestors, but also about their working ability or titles. It gives also information on the color of the dog and its siblings, training, show, and breed survey results of the parents, grandparents, and their siblings. In the studbook and in the pedigrees, progeny are identified as to breed-surveyed parents, especially from Leistungszucht (breeding from two parents and four grandparents with training degrees).

7.2 Survey Record Book

Through the breed survey (Körung), the breeding animals will appear as a selection in regard to their nature, their performances, and their anatomical construction; in particular, measurements suitable for the conservation and advancement of the breed and its working ability.

The survey record book is an addition to the studbook, and together with it and the show- and trial reports, it gives advice for purposeful breeding. The breed survey follows particular rules.

7.3 Working Trial Scorebook

This takes in all animals entered in the studbook or record that have participated in an achievement test acknowledged by the SV.

The working trial scorebook records the studbook name of the dog, the studbook and registration numbers, training degrees, and the overall evaluation acquired on each achievement test, with appraisals for the individual sections of the test, like tracking work, obedience performance, and courage test.

7.4 The Show Card

This is for all dogs entered in the studbook that are acknowledged by the SV as having participated in a conformation show. It contains beside that studbook information, the name of the dog, and the breed and show evaluations recorded at that show.

7.5 Record of the Dogs with Breeding Advice (judges’ breed warnings and recommendations)

The record of the dogs with registration bans contains the names of the dogs, and why progeny of these dogs are not allowed entry in the studbook of the SV. This is disclosed continually in the Zeitung.

7.6 Working-title Dog Registry)

The Gebrauchshund registry contains dogs with or without proven ancestry but with the corresponding breed attributes.

These January 2002 breeding rules replace all earlier determinations.



(Breeding Program for the Fight against Hip Dysplasia)

1. General
The German Shepherd Dog is one of those breeds known for hip dysplasia. A hereditary disposition is responsible for it appearing in the individual. The formulated measures that follow serve the genetic improvement of the breed. In addition, it represents advice for the suitable breeding, nourishment and care necessary in rearing pups from infancy.

2. Determination of the genetic risks
The SV has acknowledged responsibility for the estimation/calculation of the average genetic makeup of the breed in a program called a Breed Value Assessment, or Zuchtwert (ZW). Presently the process uses statistical tools such as MMP (Mixed Model Prediction) and MM (Mixed Model Estimate) and includes all relationship info and the best available procedures. The breed values are expressed as relative breed value, with a ZW number. The numerical magnitude reference of ZW 100 is the average genetic makeup of animals with the HD classification Fast-normal (“almost normal”). That leads to a hypothetical animal, without kinship to other evaluated and rated animals, over an extended period of time.

3. Information
The Zuchtwert appraisal system and the HD classifications of the FCI serve as information for the general direction of the breed. Further knowledge, for example, from early X-ray pictures, is processed according to its importance.

4. Timing Responsibility for Reporting the Calculation Results
The ZW Breed Value Assessment is published at least quarterly. The current numbers are made accessible to the breeder in suitable ways. At the beginning of each quarter, the members, breeders and local clubs can get the ZW numerical values over the Internet. In addition, the ZW numbers are updated on “S.I.D.” Information Software, obtainable from SV headquarters. These numbers are obligatory for the progress for which our breeding program is committed.

The regional groups name delegates for the ZW program who are supposed to get that info from the Internet and disperse it to the members and breeders in their regions. These representatives are responsible for doing so.

The breed value of the relevant dogs and bitches also gets published in the monthly “Nachrichten des SV Zuchtbuchamtes”, which is the news of stud services and which documents the owners of both breeding partners. Current ZW (breed value) numbers can also be obtained from the SV headquarters for a fee.

5. Progress
Animals with medium and severe HD are not permitted to breed (according to § 4, paragraph 1.3 of the VDH breeding rules). [VDH is the all-breed national dog club that the SV is associated with.] Dogs, which in reference to other features of the breed are qualified to breed, in accordance with the Zuchtordnung (breeding rules) of the SV, may only be paired if the risk of the puppy developing HD does not overstep a certain limit. The limit is expressed through the average ZW of both dogs in the breeding pair. At this time, a limit or upper boundary for that average is decided to be 100. Striving for lower values is recommended.

The breeder must inform himself regarding the suitability or evidence of the bitch being permitted for such a pairing. In figuring the ZW average of the breeding pair, the respective dogs’ ZWs in the quarterly report on date of mating will apply. If the date of mating should be within 2 weeks after publication of the current ZW numbers, the prior quarter’s breed values can also be used.

6. Violations
Violations against the progress of this breeding program are punished as violations against the breeding rules.

7. Validity
This breeding program became effective July 1, 1999.

SID Issue 1 Jan. 2001, published by the SV - Der Zuchtausschuss informiert

(Fred Lanting’s excerpts and editing of original translation by Susanne Stramm)

The duties of the breed wardens and the rights and duties of the breeders (owners of both male and female dogs) (produced by the SV breed book office in cooperation of the SV breed warden) The office of the breed warden carries a lot of responsibility and may be at times rather a thankless task, as he is called upon to ensure that the regulations of the SV are adhered to. Only such persons that have the required knowledge and experience as well as the trust of the membership of the club as well as that of the region and the main office/association should be elected to this office. The membership and breeders should be aware that the breed warden wants to help them in every situation, but that he cannot deviate from the rules of the SV and also cannot tolerate any deviation (from these regulations) not can he manipulate any such deviation. If he is to be burdened with the work he can demand to be informed by the members and breeders about all that encompasses his area of work.

The significance/authority that is given to a training warden of a club with respect to the training of the dogs must also be given to a breed warden. He is responsible for the continuance and the further development of our breed. Therefore we cannot be clear enough - nor can we say it often enough - what we must ask of breed wardens, breeders and stud owners.

1. The breed warden has the duty to advise breeders and he has the right to monitor the breeding, keeping and raising of dogs. He must be dedicated to and knowledgeable about the breed goals and duties of the SV; he must furthermore be knowledgeable about the Breed survey and breed books, the top breed lines and their ancestry and characteristics. He must be knowledgeable in the breeding and rearing (of the dogs), also in questions of husbandry, feeding and training and lastly the evaluation of structure. The selection of the breed warden in the clubs must take into account these criteria. This must be monitored by the regions. In large clubs an assistant breed warden can be made available to the breed warden, to take over certain duties. In the case of relatives (same mailing address) the assistant must register the litter.

2. The Club breed warden must advise first - in a friendly manner - club members who in his opinion have made mistakes in the breeding or maintenance of dogs. He - in this case - also should educate them about the dangers implicit in this behavior - for the future of our breed and if necessary educate them about the consequences for our breed. If neither advice nor admonishment helps or if serious mistakes are being made the club, the regional breed warden and the main club must be told and their decision must be awaited.

3. The breed warden reports about his activities very month to the club meetings and also on a yearly basis reports in writing to the regional breed warden.

4. Apart from his own experience the breed warden may refer to the club library, that is the breed survey books, breed books and other reports contained in the club library.

5. Those seeking advice should not over-burden the breed warden. This means that they should send their questions and requests should be short and clear. If these requests are made in writing then it is best to put them in the form of a questionnaire with sufficient room to write the answer in a blank space left beneath the questions.

6. Breeders who wish to be advised in selecting a suitable stud dog for their female must present the complete pedigree and if applicable the breed survey report for the female as well as the report about the trials and show ratings. The breed warden must not be asked to undertake this work him. If at all possible the female must be presented for this evaluation, if this is not possible then at the least a suitable picture must be presented, which should allow for an evaluation of the structure. At the same time – (and this must be done by the breeder!) - the breed book excerpts about the lines of the female and the stud dogs considered must be presented. This can also be achieved by presenting copies of the pedigrees.

7. The same holds for stud dog owners who would like to be advised about suitable females.

8. The right to watch over the breeding activities also extends to the breeding animals, their keeping, use and work, their litters, puppies and young dogs and therefore also on their keeping and nutrition.

9. Only animals that are strong, healthy and not genetically defective, and that are representative of the breed may be used in breeding. They must also be in accordance with the breed regulations. Admissible are all dogs that are registered in the SV breed book, who when they are bred to, have a title in accordance with the Trial regulations (SchH 1-3, passed with a minimum of 80 points in C, HGH or an equivalent) have received a show rating of G (minimum) at an SV show, have the A stamp and have a DNA registration number. IN addition the HD breed value may not be above 100 (the average of the two dogs HD ZW). Dogs that have been bred in a foreign country must also have proof of a "DNA tested" stamp, thereby must promise to be good for the breed with respect to temperament and predisposition (genetics?).

10. When used for breeding, males must be (on the day of the breeding) 2 years old. Females have completed their 20th month (when first used for breeding).

11. A stud dog may at the most do 60 breedings to bitches from his homeland and up to 30 breedings for foreign females. These breedings must be dispersed equally - 50 % for the first half year and 50 % for the second half year. The breedings should be spread as evenly as possible for the respective half year over each month. Frequent stud dog acts following close to another should be avoided because of the constitution and to ensure the taking of the breeding. Stud dog services with the same female within 28 days are to be counted as the same stud dog service. The selection of the stud dog is up to the breeder, as well as the selection of the suitable female is up to the stud dog owner. The correct stud dog act is recorded by the stud dog owner on the stud dog report (Deckbescheinigung) with his signature. At the same time the breed book office must be advised within 7 days. After completing the stud dog act the work of the stud dog is seen as completed, hence the precondition for the stud dog fee has been met. (See Breeder Rules, Jan. 2002, translated by Fred Lanting) If the female does not carry a litter a free stud dog act is to be granted. If the Female does not give birth or carry a litter, then the owner of the stud dog must be advised immediately. If the male is no longer available the owner of the female must receive half of the stud dog fee. The stud dog owner must - if the male has been barred from breeding entirely or for a limited time - reimburse the owner of the female in full. The owner of the female must inform the responsible breed warden about the stud dog act and the litter.

12. A female cannot keep more than 8 pups per litter - to rear on her own. If there are more pups a surrogate dam must raise these. The organization supports to this end in every region a surrogate dam (Amme) register. If more than 8 pups are left with the mother, she cannot be used for another breeding until 6 months have passed. The surrogate mother must be strong and healthy and have good temperament. The surrogate mother may only have 6 pups, at the most and this including her own pups. I the surrogate mother is not raising a litter of her own the pups from two different litters may be given to her - but the pups must be marked such that they can be identified. The breed warden must supervise the raising of the pups by the surrogate mother and must confirm the proper identification of the pups. At the latest the pups must be given to the surrogate mother on heir 10th day. The raising of the pups by the surrogate mother must be confirmed by the responsible breed warden in writing on the litter registration report that is with a surrogate dam confirmation form. The pups raised by the surrogate dam must be marked with an A on the tattoo report (form?) Breeding a female or using a female that is in a false pregnancy - merely for the purpose of using her as a surrogate dam is not permitted. If a female has died beyond the 10th day (of life for the pups) the use of a surrogate dam is allowed if the regional breed warden or the breed book office has issued permission.

Pups that are deformed and those pups that do not seem to be able to survive and compared to the littermates are less developed, regardless of the size of the litter, are to be put down at the latest on the 11th day - this only in a painless manner and with the attendance of a vet or professional and under anesthesia. In special cases the main office must be contacted. Any other manner of raising pups that deviates from the natural manner is not admissible. Dewclaws (Wolfskrallen) must be removed in the first week. (Translator’s note: Rule has changed as of 2002; dewclaws no longer forbidden.) On the 50th day (at the earliest) and after the first vaccination the pups should be tattooed. The vaccination - performed by a vet — must be entered on the litter registration form. The first page of the vaccination passport must be identified with the tattoo number. The tattooing can only be done at the breeder’s (or the place of the person who raises the pups) and must include the whole litter. After the 12th week pups must be placed under anesthesia for the tattoos. The pups must not be given away before they are tattooed. This (giving the pups away) can only happen in so far as they are healthy and no infectious diseases are present in the kennel. If pups have been raised by a surrogate dam, then they must be brought back to the kennel for the tattooing. Bringing back the pups to their mother from a surrogate dam can only happen after the 6th week has been completed. If the pups are not tattooed immediately after they have been returned the breeder must ensure the identity of the dams and surrogate dams pups.

13. Every member must, even if he does not belong to a local club, notify the breed warden of his area and the SV breed book office of stud services performed by his male dog and also of any litters by the female dogs. For stud services the owner of the male must note on the stud service card (Deckkarte) the day of the breeding, the registered name of the male and female including the owners’ names. For litters the breeder must note on the litter registration form (Wurfmeldeschein) the date of birth, the name of the sire, the name of the dam, the total number of pups born (listed by sex) and the number that were left with the dam.

14. If a dog of another breed or a mixed dog has been with the mother, regardless of whether he was the only stud dog or has performed this act before or after a registered German shepherd dog (who is also in accordance with the breed regulations of the SV) the litter is not seen as a pure bred litter and therefore may not be registered with the breed book.

15. Owners of a female dogs must be made aware that females in heat are to be kept safe, this from the beginning of the heat to its completion (this can last three weeks or more) - in order to avoid unintentional breedings.

16. Every owner of a stud dog must give the owner of a female dog that has been bred to the stud dog card/certificate (Deckschein). The breeder must before and immediately after the litter is born inform the breed warden. Before the litter is tattooed the litter registration must be filled out (plus a copy for the breed warden, tattooer and breeder). The request (for issuing pedigrees) with the required documentation must be send to the main office by the breeder within 6 months. To this request for pedigrees must be added: the papers for the female dog, (if a change of ownership has occurred), the original certificate of breeding (Deckbescheinigung; note I assume this to be the Deckschein)), litter registration (Wurfmeldeschein), original tattoo certificate (Tätowierschein), the tattoo control slip (Tätowierkontrollstreifen), and if necessary the certificate for the surrogate dam. The buyers of the pups must - after the entry into the breed book has been completed - be given the pedigree papers. But this only after the breeder has verified that the pedigree papers are matched up with the correct dog, that he has signed the papers, entered the name and address of the new owner on page 4 and has signed as the seller of the dog.

17. Members who use the services of the SV (breed book office) are obligated to allow the breed warden in their area or region to take a look at their kennel. They must also give any desired information about their dogs, or the record of stud dog usage (Sprüngbuch) or kennel book (Zwingerbuch), to the breed warden in their area, their region or to any member of the breed committee of the SV.

18. The breed warden also has authority over the kennels in his region whose owners do not belong to a local club but are members of the SV. He is also obligated to oversee the kennels of those members who are rearing (pups) or training (dogs) and are being paid for this service.

19. There are no costs associated for members with the advice or supervision of their kennel - any cash expenses related to this by the breed warden however such as postage are to be reimbursed to the breed warden.

20. The office of the breed warden and the tattooer are honorary offices; those expenses related to the execution of their office should be reimbursed by the breeder.

21. Breed judges and performance judges as well as performance judge applicants that live at the breed survey location or within the area are asked to support the breed survey masters on a volunteer basis. The breed wardens of the regions should if possible visit all the breed surveys in their area. The breed wardens of the region should if possible attend all the breed surveys in their area. The breed wardens of all the local clubs represented at a given breed survey should be present at said breed survey in order to be able to present information about the dogs from their clubs shown at the survey.

22. The use and successes of breed-surveyed dogs should be reported by the breed wardens at the annual reports to the regional breed warden. In this context it should be emphasized which combination of lines has been especial successful and which have not and also why.

Remarks and notices

The area of responsibility of the breed warden is determined by the regulations of the appropriate region (place of residence or club membership of the breeder).

Therefore it is possible that breed warden assistant are acting who are not recorded with the main office via the region. Thus the club reed warden should - if his assistant is active - co sign litter registrations that have been signed by his assistant. If a breed warden and a breeder are closely related, his assistant must register the litter.

If a breed warden is also the owner of the stud dog, then he cannot register and supervise litters from his stud dog. The assistant breed warden, the neighboring club breed warden or the club chairperson must be responsible for this. If the pups are raised by a surrogate dam who is outside of the breed warden’s territory (for the breeder who owns the litter) the supervision of the raising of the pups by the surrogate dam must be up to the breed warden who supervises the territory that the surrogate dam resides in. He will be responsible for adding a confirmation of the litter raised by the surrogate dam and providing a report about the raising of the pups by the surrogate dam and to add this information to the litter registration.

Before signing the litter registration (Wurfmeldeschein) the breed warden should confirm all the statements made. This includes any change in ownership of the female. If the breeder is not entered as the owner on the fourth page of the papers, then this entry must be made. The breed warden should - if it is suspected that the breed office does not know of this change in ownership - confirm the change of ownership with a certified (by the breed warden) copy of pedigree paper, which contains the change in ownership. Before the litter registration documents are sent in, the tattooer must sign the litter registration.

The verification of the trials, show registrations, breed surveys of the female and if possible of the male should be conducted by looking at the documentation and must not be forgotten.

Breed wardens are not authorized to allow deviations from the breed regulations regardless of their nature. If they do so regardless they are held responsible for this.

The authority of a breed warden does not automatically include that of a young-dog evaluator. Only the regions may certify young-dog evaluators. The region determines who can become a young dog evaluator.

2002: SV Changes

From “Der Vorstand Informiert” (SV): Overview of the Year-2001 changes to the breed regulations. Also published by the SV on their website in German, of course. I have merely excerpted and roughly translated items that I thought would be of interest to American and other English-speaking fanciers of the GSD. In accordance with the demand from the national meeting, the entire breed regulations were revised by the breed committee. Following is a short overview of the most important changes to take effect on 1.1.2002:

Requirements for breeding

The AKZ titles (that allow a dog to qualify for use in breeding) must in future be achieved under an SV judge. [This refers to dogs within Germany… this statement has been misinterpreted as applying to foreign dogs. If you don’t plan to send your dog to Germany for breeding, don’t worry about it.]

Furthermore, dogs born after 1 July, 1999 must have a DNA verification (proven ancestry). Dogs that have been bred in a foreign country and are to be used in breeding in Germany must also have the DNA verification regardless of the date of birth. Blood samples will no longer be required — a cheek swab, as is done in the U.S., will be acceptable. This can be done at the time of tattooing, for example.

Frequency of the breeding use: The distribution of the maximum 90 matings per calendar year [had been half in the first half of the year, the remainder in the other half] with German-resident or foreign-resident bitches is now at the option of the stud dog owner. However, the most matings in Germany with domestic bitches that any dog may complete is 60 per calendar year.

Bitches now are allowed to nurse up to eight whelps (instead of the previous six) in Germany. Breeders are supposed to secure a foster-mother (Ammenaufzucht) for nursing any more than that.

Dogs not permitted to be used in breeding: Starting in 2002, Aufbeissen in the area of all six incisors will result in said dog not being able to be used in breeding. [This means that either overbite or pincer (level) bite will no longer be tolerated; underbite (Bulldog style) of any degree already had been a disqualification for show and breeding.] Any surgical [alteration?] operations on the skeleton will result in the dog not being permitted to be used in breeding and will also result in an internal investigation into a possible infringement of the regulations. [It was not made clear what exceptions might be allowed, such as removal of dewclaws, repair of a bone broken in an accident, etc.]


In case of a change in ownership of a dog, the buyer must henceforth also sign, beside the seller’s signature, on the reverse of the Ahnentafel (official pedigree). The seller of the dog is to immediately report changes in ownership to the SV if it is not already known at the breed/studbook office, by means of a proper litter registration document. The new owner also is to immediately inform the SV of the change in accurate address.

The new form of the Ahnentafel has space for ten working-title tests on the back page. A separate scorebook can be given out only if 10 trial results already are entered. The records are to be filled out only by a schutzhund judge or conformation judge.

The club has arranged a procedure for the fight against elbow dysplasia on a voluntary basis as of 1-1-02. Breed Value Assessment (Zuchtwert numbers) and the DNA procedures will continue to be published and promoted. The health of the breed must not be compromised. President Messler is convinced the reasons for the decline in registrations are related to Nachfrageverhalten, which might be translated as “decreased demand”, [and which are probably related to the adverse activities of the Green Party, other anti-dog activists, and animal rights extremists.] It is not to be overlooked that the club is finding itself in a phase of radical reorganization, Messler explained. Acceptance by society regarding dogs and dog owners has been declining. It is clear that the reshaping of the structure of clubs on a desirable foundation is not yet completed.

In his analysis of the DNA process Messler said the percentage of erroneous ancestry in the SV-registered dogs was "clearly negligible" in comparison to positively identified animals eligible for breeding. The predominant majority of the breeders have worked correctly in the past and without DNA analysis, he said. Also, intention [to deceive] may not be immediately assumed for each incorrect descent. [In my opinion, Messler added this only partly because of the possibility of honest mistakes such as when Heidi jumps over the fence to visit Rex instead of breeding to Prince, and partly to protect the hide of influential, powerful breeders whose names come up in the lists of “failures” in the DNA tests.] Regardless, the SV have established new, high standards of excellence for worldwide improvement of the breed by means of the DNA test process.

The vice president of the SV, Mr. Wolfgang Henke, said our most urgent goal is to emphasize the meaning of the club and the breed. In the rest of his activity in the past club year he named the SV as being the “first agent” [guardian] for breed preservation. Henke reported on his many-faceted activities in the service-dog area. He announced the winners of this year's standard and international competition in the regional police schools for service dog handlers and submitted to the victors their medals. [Because of the greatly increased number of participants in the BSP, the police dog competitions are now being held at a separate venue.... that’s the official excuse, but actually, police departments have been switching over to the Malinois instead of the GSD for their service dogs.]

Mr. Henke also mentioned his concern over developments in the USA, particularly the announcement by the United Schutzhund clubs of America (USA), in the middle of this year, their intention to issue "their own papers" [registrations and pedigrees], as well as to introduce their own DNA procedures and Breed Value (Zuchtwert) Assessment. Henkes is also convinced that the highest interest would be to serve the German standards as the basis of successful breeding.


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